Useful Tips

Shelter for the family: How to build a do-it-yourself bunker


In the event that the nuclear attack is far away and you are far from private and public shelters, you can build your own shelter. One of the types of shelter that can be easily built by a typical family in a short period of time is a trench covered with earth. It is simply a depression in the ground, with a pole-shaped roof sprinkled with an earthen mound. Here is a list of the necessary things that will be needed to build such a shelter as quickly and easily as possible:

Instruments - shovels for digging the earth, peaks (crowbars, picks) for hard earth, saws and axes for cutting roofs and knives - this is a necessary supply. Other useful items include cans, buckets, pans and pans that can be used to carry out the earth and to store water, measuring tapes (tape measures) for measuring the length, width and depth of the shelter, lights, ropes, hammers, pliers, work gloves, first-aid kits .

Waterproof material - Anything, including shower curtains, tablecloths, mattress covers and cellophane - everything will do.

Water - pizza from liters of drinking water is recommended to hold out inside the shelter for as long as possible. It is necessary for a person to be able to survive inside the shelter for at least 2 weeks after a nuclear strike, so that a sufficient amount of water will guarantee survival.

Homemade ventilation - since the human body is designed in such a way that it emits liquid in the form of vapors, - inside the shelter it will very quickly become unbearably hot without proper ventilation. This page contains instructions for creating a Kearny Air Pump (KAP) - Kearney Air Pump, which circulates air simply and efficiently, while bringing minimal, safe amounts of radiation into the shelter.

To get started, you must determine the contours of your trench. The shelter should be located no closer than 30 meters from the dry buildings, as A nuclear explosion can cause serious consequences, destroying everything along the horizon with fire and blast.
After you have decided on the location of the shelter, start digging a trench and preparing roof ceilings of such a length that they protrude at least half a meter from the edges of the trench.

Cover any gaps between the logs with cloth or other material to prevent dirt and debris from getting inside. The roof must consist of at least two layers of earth, each 20 cm thick, and overlap with a waterproofing material (cellophane, tablecloth, etc.). Do not forget to provide entrance to the shelter :).

PS: I hope this instruction will never come in handy in our life.

The article was translated and voiced by me at the request of the US National Security Committee in 1961.

In addition, I provide a link to a publication that standardizes and defines types of shelters and methods of protection against the consequences of a nuclear attack:

Bureaucracy is not required

To build a small shelters special documents are not required to be issued on your own site. However, this only works if there are no centralized communications under the site that could be damaged during construction. bunkerbut. Before starting construction, it is advisable to find out.

We measure the groundwater level

So that it doesn’t happen that during the construction of the underground bunker turned into a pool of water, you need to navigate to what depth groundwater passes. This can, in principle, be done on their own: just pay attention to the water level in nearby wells or pay attention to the water bodies or rivers that are nearby. The difference between the surface of the water, for example, in a well, and the surface level of the land will be an approximate indicator of the depth of groundwater.

You can also seek advice from neighbors who have their own water wells in the areas, since when drilling, the depth of groundwater is more accurately determined.

Build bunkerOf course, you need at least 50 centimeters above the groundwater level. For example, if the groundwater in the area flows at a depth of 4 meters, then the depth of the pit should be no more than 3.5 meters.

Specialists conducting such work claim that the ideal depth hopper 4 meters, so in the case of a closer occurrence of groundwater to build a good shelter it is unlikely to succeed, otherwise it will not be comfortable and functional.


It is important to choose the right place for construction hopper. Some homeowners prefer to arrange bunker right under the house, almost in the basement. But experts do not agree with such a location. Arrange like that shelter better at some distance from the house, because in the case of, for example, a strong hurricane or an earthquake, the main building may be destroyed and its debris will block the exit from hopper.

Location shelters under the house is only possible if there are separate exits from it within a radius of 15 meters from the structure of the house. In addition, communication systems must be autonomous and in no way connected to home systems.

Moreover, the entrance to shelterAccording to the expert, it is better to disguise. For example, it can be placed on the side of a wooden street toilet or tool shed. Typically, such structures stand in the garden among plants and trees, which makes penetration into bunker most invisible to surrounding eyes.

Take measurements

Before you start construction hopper, you need to calculate its area. Given that bunkersheltersf in case of a hurricane or an earthquake is not designed for long-term stay of people, you can limit yourself to 3 square meters per person, which will provide quite adequate conditions in case of danger. Thus, for an average family, the area of ​​such a room will be 9-12 "squares".

Short stay bunker

If a bunker If it is built exclusively for short-term stays, in case of natural disasters, the most rational solution is to use a septic tank made of impact-resistant plastic, dug into the ground. Experts confirm that such a solution will be enough to wait for the hurricane, and on the other hand, it is a durable construction that will not require significant funds to maintain it in good condition.

Moreover, such a design does not require any complex engineering solutions, whether ventilation or heating.

For a small shelters Arrangement of natural ventilation is enough: in fact, these are two pipes leading to the surface. Specialized air purification systems for such shelters also not needed.

You can limit yourself to a standard dustproof ventilation filter, which can be made independently from gauze or fiberglass. Power supply, he said, may include connecting the facility to central networks and creating an emergency supply of batteries and accumulators.

According to experts, it does not make sense to implement a serious heating system: the earth rarely freezes to a depth of more than 1 meter, while the concept itself shelters does not provide for a long stay. In this case, it makes sense to limit the supply of warm clothing, thermal underwear and other camping accessories.

On average, a high-quality septic tank with a capacity of 18 cubic meters will cost about 300 thousand rubles. While land work does not require special preparation, and they can be implemented independently. In the case of the use of hired force, the cost of such work is unlikely to exceed 50 thousand rubles.

Extended Hopper

Those homeowners who have a solid approach to security issues and want to arrange bunker, in which you can hide for a long time not only from the weather, but also from a chemical attack, leading experts in the field of construction of such structures advise to build bunker an area of ​​12 square meters with a separate technical room of 2-3 square meters, where an energy generator and a dry closet will be placed.

Building shelters begin with foundation pit, and with it digging up need to consider the thickness of the walls and the height of the foundation of the future hopper and, accordingly, make "allowances" on them. So, for example, the thickness of the walls of the brick will be equal to 25 centimeters, and the thickness of the foundation slab - 23 centimeters. Pit walls during the construction period it is necessary to strengthen with logs and boards in order to avoid collapse of the soil or soil.

Before pouring foundation slabs it is necessary to prepare the foundation by leveling and strengthening the bottom of the pit with 20-30 centimeters of rubble or sand. To strengthen the strength of the base, it is better to reinforce the foundation floor with reinforcement and knitting wire. After pouring concrete, it is advisable to wait 10-15 days for it to solidify and become strong.

After the base has completely dried, you can proceed to arrangement of walls. Specialists recommend the use of white solid brick with reinforcing masonry every 3 rows with a metal mesh or wire. Masonry thickness maybe half a brick. The height of the masonry should be at least 2.2 meters.

The next step is roof construction. Roof overlap architects advise making it from a metal I-beam, covering it from above with 4 cm thick boards and 2 cm thick metal sheets. For roof waterproofing, for example, 2 layers of dense polyethylene are suitable. Thereafter bunker covered with earth. Log in bunker equipped with tight-fitting sealed manhole and a wooden staircase for the descent. Hermdoor you can do it yourself by laying, for example, insulation strips from a rubber tube. In addition to the main input, the device hopper should have an emergency exit in case of blockage of the main manhole. For waterproofing shelters inside, before finishing, it is necessary to coat the walls and floor with a hydroisol.

At the end, internal partitions are erected in a half-brick for equipping the engine room with a separate door. Estimated cost of such hopper, built with your own hands, will range from 75 to 130 thousand rubles.

Engineering and household equipment

In order to hold out in bunker from 12 hours to several days, it is necessary to provide an autonomous power supply with electric energy and an external ventilation duct with air filters to avoid the ingress of toxic substances and dust. However, you can also equip in bunker an air conditioning system for internal cleaning with air regeneration, but it will cost significantly more than conventional "external" ventilation. The cost of such a system starts from 100 thousand rubles. However, this will be the only significant line of expenses during construction. shelters.

As a system of an autonomous energy source, a generator running on gasoline or diesel fuel is suitable. Accordingly, in bunker there should always be a canister with a fuel reserve for it, say, 10 liters. To save space, berths in bunker Equipped with bunk beds.

Strategic stock

The main strategic stock in bunker is water, it needs to be stocked as much as possible - 200-300 liters. Food should be canned, it is also good to stock up with various cereals - they are nutritious and stored for a long time.

The first-aid kit should include septic tanks, bandages, cotton wool, adhesive plasters, a thermometer, scissors, a rubber heating pad and gauze masks. Each family, in principle, can determine the set of drugs independently, focusing on the health status of each of the households, but it is better to include heart drugs, painkillers and drugs to normalize the intestines in the list.

Finally, in addition to warehouses with food and medicine, in bunkere must be everything necessary to carry out "intelligence»Sorties to the surface. These items include gas masks, protective clothing, and a flashlight.

Bunker Types and Shelter Requirements

Nuclear bunkers must meet certain safety requirements:

  1. Protect people from harmful factors.
  2. Settle on an area that is not flooded.
  3. To have several inputs or outputs, an emergency exit in the event of a main blockage.
  4. Purify the air from all kinds of harmful additives using ventilation equipment.
  5. Provide sanitary conditions for people.

The bunker as a refuge for the family is classified by:

  • Protective properties.
  • Location (built-in and freestanding).
  • Ventilation filtering (industrial and handicraft manufacturing).
  • Erection time (pre-built or prefabricated).
  • Duration of stay (short and long).

A short-term nuclear bunker is built quickly and easily. When constructing a simple shelter, energy and expenditure on construction are saved several times. The bottom of the room is strengthened with stones or boards. A rational solution is to use a septic tank made of impact-resistant plastic, dug into the ground.

For a nuclear bunker of this type, a serious heating system will not be required, because the concept does not provide for a long-term stay. Such a design does not require complex engineering solutions. For a small room, the arrangement of natural ventilation is enough.

A preliminary drawing of the hopper will help to formulate an action plan. This option is a simple solution that can be done with minimal cost.

Preparations for the construction of a bomb shelter

Now the construction of bunkers is rarely involved, because the cost of construction is quite high. Therefore, if there is a land plot, you can independently cope with this task. To make a bomb shelter with your own hands, you need to invest in construction, purchase quality materials and other systems and structures to ensure safety and comfort. Before starting construction, you need to make an estimate, calculate the cost of construction and the cost of all necessary equipment.

Before starting construction, a bunker diagram is made and a location is selected. It’s also worth knowing a few factors, which are taken into account when building the premises:

    You must choose the right location for the hopper. There should not be poles, bushes, trees, or other structures nearby that could block the exit from the shelter in the event of a disaster.

How to build a bunker? If you take into account the above factors, then you can independently make a bomb shelter that will stand for many years.

How to build a long stay bunker?

The shelter for the family is intended to shelter from all sorts of dangers and is most often located underground. The hardest and most expensive is a foundation pit or concrete box. And the rest of the work can be done independently, but they must be done according to a certain sequence.

The construction will take much more time and effort. To build a reliable bunker with your own hands, you will need a huge amount of concrete. The most important thing is to smooth the surface in the foundation pit and strengthen its bottom with a layer of crushed stone or sand of 30 cm. For better strength, you can use reinforcement and knitting wire.

It is important to foresee the location of the necessary communications, ventilation, emergency exit, and determine the power source. One thing is invariable - the longer a person wants to be in a bomb shelter, the more funds will have to be invested in its construction and the purchase of necessary elements.