Strawberry is the traditional taste of summer, it is a pearl that has been a summer pleasure for years. Strawberries can be eaten fresh or served as a dessert: some desserts include it, such as shortbread cookies and strawberry pie. Also, strawberries can be served as a filling for waffles or ice cream and used to make great strawberry jam. This article will help you decide how to prepare and enjoy strawberries.
Method 1 Preparing Strawberries for Use
- 1 Choose bright, fresh berries. Do not use shriveled, dried or moldy berries. Also, do not take strawberries soaked with moisture, as this means that its time has passed. A good strawberry should be firm and bright. Choose organic strawberries, if available.
- Some chefs believe that the smaller the strawberries, the greater the aroma due to the high concentration of sugar.
- 2 Rinse the strawberries under running water, but do not soak them. Gently wipe the berries under running water to make sure that each berry is clean and free of land. Strawberries sold at the grocery store are pretty clean, so a good rinse does the trick.
- 3 Let it drain in a colander or lay on paper towels.
- 4 Peel the berries by removing green sepals and twigs with a vegetable peeler or peeler.
- 5 Cut the strawberries. If desired, sweeten with a little ultrafine sugar and use strawberries for two hours from the time of preparation. Keep the strawberries chilled before serving.
- 6 Store strawberries in the refrigerator. Strawberries will be stored after purchase for up to 7 days. Do not wash or prepare strawberries before use.
Method 2 Strawberry Freeze
If you want to keep strawberries longer, freezing is ideal. This section explains how to do this correctly.
- 1 Rinse, dry and remove the sepals.
- 2 Cover the pan with wax or parchment paper.
- 3 Put the prepared strawberries on a baking sheet, leaving enough space between the berries.
- 4 Freeze the strawberries until they are firm.
- 5 Remove the frozen strawberries from the pan and place in the freezer in special storage bags.
- 6 Freeze. Use as you wish.
Preparing strawberries for the winter
The arrival of spring in the garden plots forces gardeners to mobilize all their forces to harvest this year. One of the most popular berry crops is garden strawberry. Her fragrant sweet berries are highly appreciated by small gourmets, but adults will certainly appreciate the unique taste of summer. The long-term nature of the plant requires careful care throughout the entire growing season. With the advent of autumn, you should not abandon your favorite plantation, because the preparation of strawberries for winter is the basis for harvesting next year. The material of the article tells about the secrets of caring for the crop after fruiting, the smooth preparation of the plant for the dormant period, the timing and methods of warming in different regions.
- Basically, the root system of strawberries is concentrated in the surface soil layer - up to 25-30 centimeters. Therefore, the fertility of the upper layer of the earth is of great importance. We improve it by introducing manure or compost for digging - up to 50 kg per 10 m2.
- As ground fertilizers we use legumes (peas) mixed with cereals (preferably rye). We sow them in the fall (winter) for digging in the spring. In the spring we sow spring for digging in the summer.
- If the site is well fertilized, you do not need to make additional fertilizing for planting, especially nitrogen. Fertilizing with nitrogen can even lead to a decrease in yield, although this will increase the growth of plants and the number of growing mustache.
- Additional fertilizer in the second year of planting may be a garden mixture. It is not necessary to use a mixture with a richer composition of substances
Solid carpet fit
This method is especially in demand. How is he good? It allows you to get the largest yields of berries, but relatively small. However, a decrease in the size of the fruits does not affect their taste, but even slightly improves them.
Even in the most lean years on strawberries, a good crop always ripens.
The berry has to transplant more often, but the high yield and a relatively smaller amount of work to care for planting justify the effort of transplanting.
Strawberry - description, photo
One of 20 species of the genus Fragaria is grown on garden plots. What we used to call Victoria, strawberries and strawberries, botanists call Fragaria ananassa - pineapple strawberries. Presumably its ancestors are the Chilean and Virginian varieties. This large-fruited plant, in fact, is a cultigen, that is, it was once domesticated, but the ancestors of the culture were not identified by scientists. And this is not surprising, because even the ancient Greeks knew about juicy berries.
It is interesting! The history of the cultivation of strawberries has more than 5 thousand years. Wild ancestors were known to man already in the Stone Age.
The name of the genus comes from the word fragaris, which in Latin means fragrant. Juicy fruits are incredibly fragrant. The Russian name is associated with the proximity of the berries to the surface of the soil. And the name strawberry comes from the old Russian word "club", which designates an object of a rounded shape. Victoria is the most popular cultivar. All these names are firmly established in everyday life, so any of them is associated with juicy sweet berries, which are one of the first to appear on the site.
To better understand what kind of care you need to provide the culture with the advent of autumn, consider its detailed botanical description.
Dark green perennial bushes reach a height of 15-20 cm. The deciduous mass consists of ternate plates that sit on long thin petioles. Each leaf consists of three oval lobes with a ribbed surface. A large serration runs along the edge of the plate. deciduous mass is formed in the horns - basal growths. The older the bush, the more horns it has. The kidneys stop producing horns after three years of vegetation. This is due to the biological aging of the individual.
Know! Every three years, you need to rejuvenate the strawberry bed by planting young bushes and rooting the daughter sockets.
The deciduous apparatus is divided into four types, gradually replacing each other during the season. The life expectancy of one leaf does not exceed 8 weeks. The first type appears in early spring. In the sinuses, has a growth bud with a horn, responsible for the production of peduncles. Toward the beginning of summer, foliage changes. The buds located in the axils of the second type of leaves are responsible for vegetative propagation. From them appear elevated stolons - a mustache. The third shift is responsible for the formation of new horns and the production of stolons. In autumn, the last change of foliage occurs. The fourth type of leaves is responsible for laying the buds of the next season, within which the rudiments of new leaves and peduncles develop. This shift remains to winter in the bushes.
The root system of a strawberry is fibrous. It grows rapidly in the upper horizons of the soil, lying at a depth of up to 30 cm. On the lateral roots radical growths are formed - horns. Due to such a shallow occurrence of the root lobe, thorough warming will be necessary so that the bush does not freeze during severe colds.
Attention! Gardeners should vigilantly control the process of changing leaf mass and remove fading foliage on time. In plant debris, pests and fungal spores like to settle.
Flowering of the crop falls at the end of May, but these terms are conditional and depend on the cultivation zone and varietal affiliation of the plant. For example, repair hybrids continue to bloom and produce crops until the end of the season.
The flowers are collected in a corymbose inflorescence, have a simple whisk. It consists of five white petals, but there are decorative varieties with pink and raspberry-colored petals. A large number of stamens and pistils are concentrated in the core of the flower. The receptacle gradually grows and turns into a juicy false berry. Tiny nuts located on the surface of the receptacle are the fruits of wild strawberries. Strawberry is pollinated by insects.
Culture has gained incredible popularity for many reasons. She appears one of the first on the site and becomes a lifesaver for immunity weakened over the winter.
The berries are rich in potassium, vitamins C, E, PP, antioxidants, dietary fiber, and organic acids. Low calorie content allows the use of fruits in a diet, they will benefit diabetics. Sweet summer gifts will help cure skin diseases, restore beauty, strengthen immunity and improve the functioning of the whole body.
Remember! Caution when eating fruits is important for allergy sufferers, patients with dentures, and people with gastritis.
Preparing strawberry bushes for the winter
The end of the fruiting of the perennial falls in the second half of the summer. At this time, the horns begin to store up nutrients for laying the kidneys of next year. There are a large number of daughter sockets that can be used to rejuvenate the plantation. The old wave of leaves dies. From this moment, gardeners begin to prepare the plant for a rest period. What measures to take to strengthen the bushes you will learn further.
Gardeners hold different points of view regarding crop care after fruiting, but a common tactic still exists. Care measures for strawberry garden include:
- treatment for diseases and pests,
- removal of old leaves,
- feed application.
The listed works are carried out from mid-July to the end of August. Autumn crop care will be considered separately.
It is customary to continue irrigation, as Victoria spends a lot of energy on laying the kidneys. To fully prepare for wintering, the garden is watered every 7-10 days. The irrigation regime is plentiful, the soil should be moistened to a great depth.
Weeds by the middle of summer are full of health. They are in a hurry to form seeds and disperse them on the site. To avoid overgrowing strawberry beds, weeds must be removed in a timely manner. This measure is very important, because between plants there is competition for soil resources and territory, and strawberries should direct all efforts to the formation of the future crop.
Remember! Weeds often become a haven for pests. Parasites quickly move to various cultures, the fight against them turns into a large-scale war.
Weeding is convenient to do the day after watering. Armed with a hoe, loosen the soil to a depth of 8-10 cm. Near the bush, you must be careful not to damage the root system.
After 2 years of vegetation, the bush actively forms subordinate roots, while the buried part of the rhizome gradually dies. Side roots and horns lie in the upper layers of the soil and require full contact with the substrate. If you do not spud the bush, he will not receive the necessary nutrition rate, which will affect winter hardiness and productivity. In the process of loosening, it is necessary to add soil to the additional roots. After loosening, hilling and weeding the aisles, they fall asleep with mulch. Such a measure will complicate the growth of weeds, will preserve moisture in the root zone longer.
Strawberry Processing in August
The end of summer is the best time to strengthen the immunity of perennials. Fungal diseases are especially active at the time of a decrease in temperature and humidity, which occurs with the onset of autumn. To avoid infection, it is better to take care of the health of the bush in advance.
Spores of fungal pathogens are easily carried by the wind over long distances. Penetrating into the ground, they are able to wait a long time for suitable conditions for development. The mechanism will trigger a sharp fluctuation in temperature and humidity. Sprawling mycelium is a danger to all parts of the plant, quickly forming a new batch of spores. Destroy most pathogens will help copper-containing drugs - Bordeaux liquid, copper chloride, Skor. They are prepared in accordance with the instructions and sprayed onto the leaves.
Nitrafen gives excellent results. It comprehensively combats pathogens of fungal diseases, disinfects the soil, destroys pest larvae.
Advice! To disinfect the soil, use watering with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Pests, even after harvesting, continue to be interested in strawberry bushes. Strawberry and spider mites, aphids, weevils after picking berries are easily destroyed by systemic insecticides. Give preference to the preparations of Karbofos, Actellik, Aktara, Karate.
Gluttonous gastropods are interested in the juicy greens of strawberries. The plant will still need it to accumulate nutrients and continue life, because it is nourished through photosynthesis in the leaves. Slugs and snails will have to be destroyed by collecting manually. Or you can keep them out of the bushes by sprinkling barbed mulch, setting up small containers with chlorine bleach, or sprinkling soil with a mixture of ash, tobacco and hot pepper.
Pruning strawberry bushes made after the last batch of fruits. Gardeners did not come to a consensus about this care item for wild strawberries. Some advocate for the natural cycle, arguing that any interference will adversely affect the development of the plant. Supporters of pruning are of the opinion that removing old foliage helps increase yields and strengthen immunity.
Important! Bushes aged 2-3 years are pruned. More mature shoots must be removed from the garden, as it will no longer bring a good harvest.
Early varieties are pruned first. Use scissors or a thin pruner to remove foliage. In order not to damage the horns and kidneys, only the plate itself needs to be cut. Petioles are left untouched. At the final stage, remove the mustache. If there are first-order rooted outlets, leave them to upgrade the plantation.
Why is pruning done in the summer? Before the end of the growing season, the bush must have time to build up a new leaf apparatus. It will protect the roots and buds from freezing, serving as a kind of umbrella for retaining snow cover. If you remove the leaves in the fall, the risk of freezing will increase. In the spring, the bushes will come to their senses for a long time, spending precious resources on the restoration of deciduous mass instead of growing peduncles.
More pruning will help to avoid secondary infection with fungi. If the old leaf is affected, the mycelium easily migrates to young foliage. Timely removal of plant debris is a mandatory procedure for protection against diseases and pests.
Top dressing after trimming
Do not forget about top dressing, because by the end of the summer Victoria is laying down stocks of nutrients for wintering. The importance in this period is trace elements - potassium and phosphorus. Nitrogen fertilizers after fruiting are not applied, since they provoke violent growth of foliage.
Attention! The use of chlorinated fertilizers adversely affects the development of Victoria. Exclude potassium chloride, potassium salt, ammonium chloride from the “menu”.
The best option would be to use humus from cow or horse manure. After completing all the above procedures, lay small pieces of fertilizer around the bushes. They have a long action, since beneficial substances will penetrate into the soil after each irrigation or natural rainfall.
If quick recovery is required, a solution of chicken 1:20 or mullein 1:10 is used. As a mineral top dressing, superphosphate, potassium sulfate is suitable. Take 20 g of each fertilizer per square meter. They are introduced when loosening, and then carry out abundant watering. Experienced gardeners recommend the use of vermicompost, ashes for supporters of all natural.
After watering, mulch the area with peat or coniferous litter. Subsequent irrigation and loosening are performed through the mulching components.
Mulching the soil is recommended in spring. But you need to monitor the level of the mulch layer throughout the season after pre-processing and feeding, be sure to water the soil and mulch it with a layer of coniferous litter.
If mulch is used as winter protection, the layer needs to be enlarged and other components considered for these purposes. Details will be described in the corresponding section of the article.
Hilling in the fall of Victoria is contraindicated. This procedure leads to damage to the roots, and they are unlikely to have time to fully recover before the onset of cold weather. If you did not have time to do this after fruiting, it is better to just carefully pour the soil on the bare accessory roots.
Advice! Picking up weeds with autumn roots is not practical, because you can damage the roots of the bush. It is better to use weedy vegetation for good, pruning and laying in the aisles.
It is not necessary to transplant old Victoria bushes. Young plants under the age of two years are planted or new sockets are planted. This event is aimed at rejuvenating strawberry beds. По своей сути является размножением.
For these purposes, use your own planting material or purchased in a nursery. To root rosettes, select bushes that have given less yield this season. Strawberries are unique - in one season, the bush throws resources either to vegetative or generative propagation (fruiting). Leave one stolon on the bush. As soon as it becomes possible to pin the first-order outlet to the ground, pinch the tip of the mustache. When the baby takes root, it can be removed from the ground and transplanted to a new place.
Some varieties do not produce stolons. They are propagated by partitioning or dividing the bush. To do this, the outlet is removed from the ground and divided into 2-3 parts. Then they land in a new place.
Remember! The best planting material are first-order sockets.
Autumn strawberry transplant is carried out at various times. For the Middle Strip, it is better to perform the procedure in mid-September, in the South you can plant before the end of the first ten days of October. In regions with a harsh climate, it is more advisable to transplant at the end of summer. Such terms will allow young shoots to fully root before the onset of cold weather.
The transplant is carried out as follows:
- shorten the root lobe of the seedling to a length of 10 cm,
- dip the roots in a garlic infusion or a weak solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection,
- make a clay mash based on a growth stimulant solution. Immediately before planting, dip the root lobe in the talker,
- on the prepared bed, form the holes in increments of 20-40 cm. The distance between the rows is 40-60 cm,
- prepare a nutrient substrate from a mixture of fertile soil with a bucket of mature compost.
- Put the moistened substrate on the bottom of the hole. Set the seedling on the knoll so that the heart is flush with the surface of the earth,
- add the substrate, condense, water abundantly,
- Be sure to mulch the soil with peat or humus.
On a note! Care of transplanted seedlings is carried out according to the standard scheme.
Additional feeding is not required.
We have already talked about pest control, but in the fall they will again try to populate the strawberry beds. Parasites rush to give offspring, which with the advent of spring will necessarily spoil the plantings. Therefore, it is worth repeating the treatment of diseases using copper preparations and poisoning the hidden pests of Karbofos. It is used for watering the soil and spraying.
Strawberry Shelter for the Winter
The final stage in the preparation of strawberry beds for winter is the organization of a winter shelter. When, with what and how to cover strawberries you will learn further.
They cover the bed only after a stable low temperature is established. The first frosts will only strengthen the young shoots, and early shelter can destroy the bush due to aging. But it’s not worth pulling until the snow cover is established, everything is good in moderation.
Important! It is necessary to focus on the climatic features of your region. Therefore, there is no specific term for preparing for winter.
The better to harbor
As a covering material, you can use:
- dry foliage
- pine litter,
- hardwood sawdust,
- fir spruce tree,
- corn foliage.
Among the advantages of these materials, it is worth noting environmental friendliness, easy accessibility and reliability. They retain snow well, which is considered the most reliable material for protecting plants from cold. But there are certain rules for selecting materials.
You should not take sawdust from the wood of coniferous trees. A large number of tannins will adversely affect the health of the culture. To prevent the material from caking too much, give preference to a large fraction or chips. Otherwise, the bushes run the risk of dying from aging.
When using foliage as a shelter, select only healthy material. If the fruit culture suffered a fungal disease, it is better not to take its leaves to cover the beds. Otherwise, the plantation will turn into a hotbed of disease.
Pine litter and spruce branches have no contraindications. These materials are ideal for organizing winter shelters. They will protect against frost and wind, while leaving free access to oxygen. Caking and accumulation of moisture is excluded.
Attention! Corn foliage and straw do a great job of snow retention, but can be a haven for rodents. Voles often make nests in straw, and if there is a lack of food, they will include a strawberry bush in their menu.
If you prefer modern technology, it is worth using agrofibre or spanbond. These covering materials will reliably protect the plant from the cold, provide respiration and light penetration. Choose agrofibre with a density of 60 g / m 2.
How to cover strawberries
When using mulching components, they should be laid out around the bush with a layer of up to 20 cm. If it is necessary to cover young animals, they completely fill it up. In particularly harsh winters, the soil cracks and the root system freezes through the cracks. Mulching aisles will help to avoid freezing of the roots.
If you chose agrofibre as a shelter, you must pull it onto the arcs. Otherwise, outlets will be at even greater risk of freezing. In contact with the leaves, agrofibre freezes strongly. This method of sheltering is called tunneling. Install metal or plastic arcs above the bed. Gently spread the agrotex and press the edges with the ground.
Attention! Avoid contact of agrofibre with foliage.
How to prepare strawberries for wintering in Siberia, in the Moscow Region, in the Urals
For adult bushes and young shoots to endure the winter with dignity, in different regions of the country they will need different preparations.
In Siberia, the preparatory phase begins immediately after fruiting. All items described should be completed by the end of the first ten days of August. Transplanting young shoots is best done at the same time or in the spring. The Siberian region boasts the formation of large snow cover, so it is enough to throw a plantation with spruce branches. Pay attention to mulching aisles. If winter promises to be little snow, use a tunnel shelter.
The Moscow region can’t boast of such a chic cover, so the garden bed is necessarily covered with mulching components. During the rest period, you will have to control the level of snow and, if necessary, pour it over the landings. All autumn work is completed by mid-September.
The Ural climate is very difficult for cultivating cultivated plants. To ensure your crop, strictly follow agricultural regulations and select exclusively zoned varieties. There is a lot of snow in the Urals, but winter is particularly severe. Therefore, it is recommended that all work be completed by early August, and the transplant should be left in the spring.
Attention! Only old leaves are pruned.
Before wintering, it is better to fill up the bushes with needles and throw them with spruce branches. Carefully cover the aisles. Constantly monitor the level of snow cover. It is unacceptable to leave strawberries under a layer of less than 20 cm. In the spring, do not rush to remove the shelter.
It is not without reason that the old proverb says that sleds need to be prepared in the summer. So with strawberries - competent preparation for winter should be carried out immediately after collecting the last berry. If you deal with this issue in a timely manner, a good harvest will surely please you.